Rube Marquard won 19 consecutive games in 1912... I don't think that record has ever been broken. If you're interested in Baseball records, I recommend the book <a href="http://www.booksonboard.com/index.php?BODY=viewbook&BOOK=17728">Clearing the Bases (the ebooks and audiobooks version)</a>. It's really interesting... parts are a little sad bc baseball isn't the clean sport it used to be... but still interesting.
That would depend on when one believes the 'modern era' of MLB began. For this answer, we will take Baseball Almanac's year of 1977 as the beginning of the 'modern era'. Since 1977, the most wins in a season by a pitcher is 27 by Bob Welch of the Oakland Athletics in 1990.
That is Charles (Lady) Baldwin of the 1886 Detroit Wolverines with 42. The rest of the top 10 are: 2) 36 wins - Frank Killen, 1893 Pittsburgh Pirates.
3) 32 wins - Lee Richmond, 1880 Worcester Ruby Legs.
4) 30 wins - Frank Killen, 1896 Pittsburgh Pirates.
5) 29 wins - Frank Killen, 1892 Washington Senators; Ed Morris, 1888 Pittsburgh Pirates.
7) 28 wins - Dan Casey, 1887 Philadelphia Phillies.
8) 27 wins - Ted Breitenstein, 1894 St. Louis Browns; Steve Carlton, 1972 Philadelphia Phillies; Sandy Koufax, 1966 Los Angeles Dodgers.
Through games played August 7, 2008:
1) Warren Spahn - 363
2) Steve Carlton - 329
3) Ed Plank - 326
4) Tom Glavine - 305
5) Lefty Grove - 300
6) Randy Johnson - 300
7) Tommy John - 288
8) Jim Kaat - 283
9) Eppa Rixey - 266
10) Jamie Moyer - 258
Cy Young he won 500 something games and threw 3 no-hitters 1 was a perfect game.
Old Hoss Radbourn has the most wins in a single season with 59 wins in the year 1884.
John Coleman 48 in 1883
Nolan Ryan holds the career record with 5,714 strikeouts.
Cy Young, who pitched between 1890-1911, holds the MLB record for career wins by a pitcher with 511. He also holds the MLB record for career losses by a pitcher with 316.
As of 2009, Andy Pettitte holds the record for most career postseason wins with 18.
Sandy Koufax had 11 shutouts in 1963 for the Dodgers.
Nolan Ryan with 7
Through the 2008 season, that is Trevor Hoffman with 554.