The maximum pressure exerted against the patients airway during the breath.
For a normal patient with normal lungs it is 25-30...
Settings that are too high on a ventilator can cause ventilator induced lung damage. The normal peak pressure (flow) inspiratory hold is .5-1 second.
The maximum pressure exerted against the patients airway during the breath
when you breath in and out up and down
If Peak Inspiratory Pressure or Peak Airway Pressure is reached too soon, this could be caused by airway obstruction, kinking of the ET tube, bronchospasm, low lung compliance or the pressure is set too low. ET tube cuff leak or ventilator circuit leak could be a cause if unable to reach PIP.
More oxygen than carbon dioxide.
CPAP-Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, SiPAP-Synchronized inspiratory Positive Airway Pressure
30-40 bar peak pressure
The plateau pressure is the pressure applied (in positive pressure ventilation) to the small airways and alveoli. It is believed that control of the plateau pressure is important, as excessive stretch of alveoli has been implicated as the cause of ventilator induced lung injury. The peak pressure is the pressure measured by the ventilator in the major airways, and it strongly reflects airways resistance. For example, in acute severe asthma, there is a large gradient between the peak pressure (high) and the plateau pressure (normal). In pressure controlled ventilation, the pressure limit is (usually) the plateau pressure due to the dispersion of gas in inspiration. In volume control, the pressure measured (the PAW) by the ventilator is the peak airway pressure, which is really the pressure at the level of the major airways. To know the real airway pressure, the plateau pressure which is applied at alveolar level, the volume breath must be made to simulate a pressure breath. An inspiratory hold (0.5 to 1 second) is applied, and the airway pressure, from the initial peak, drops down to a plateau. The hold represents a position of no flow.
wheeze can be inspiratory or expiratory but stridor is mostly inspiratory
the peak pressure on a ventilator reads 40 cm h20 what is the equivalent pressure in mm hg?
In manual ventilation you can increase the PaO2 by hyperventilating the patient, by increasing the respiratory rate and/or by increasing the volume of air that you deliver to the patient. If using a BVM for example, compressing the bag faster and/or harder will increase the arterial oxygen pressure, but there is a limit to what you can do with manual ventilation. Perfusion in the lungs has a major impact on PaO2. Also, the blood chenistry (anemia or CO2 poisoning) for example will dramatically decrease the PaO2. Sometimes no matter how much you hyperventilate the person, low PaO2 can't be corrected.
Inspiratory reserve volume is the volume you can inhale past the normal tidal volume.