Yes... if the timing is not right anything can warp or crack... so be very careful.
Yes, it if is worn and jumps a tooth.
Overheating can warp and crack cylinder heads, head gaskets and all bearings, especially crank bearings. In extreme it will destroy the engine
No. You can warp the heads making your repair costs triple. You can not only warp the heads you can totally destroy the engine. Coolant mixes with the oil when a head gasket is blown. This causes serious engine wear in a short period of time. Never run an engine with a blown head gasket.
The car has a boo boo
Yes but it depends on whether its worth the trouble or not. Sometimes when the timing belt breaks it will cause the pistons to slam into the heads. this can be a very expensive fix
You have a blown head gasket. Stop driving the car or you will do serious damage to this engine. The heads will have to be removed, checked for warp-age & cracks, and new head gaskets installed.
The best place to view videos with insane car jumps is YouTube. A YouTube search for insane car jumps returns hundreds of results one could enjoy watching.
Check front spindles/axles, check brake rotor for warpage, and check ball joints and see if there might be a small warp in the rim of the wheel. Also have the car realigned if you haven't already.
If it literally "jumps", it's a bad motormount.
The timing belt turns your camshaft which opens and closes the valves. If you have a non-interference head your engine will crank. If it doesn't then your valves will smash into your piston heads and something would have to break for it to turn over.
no the car will not start timing has to be set again