Actually there are many ways to tell if you have a bad cat.
.A rotten egg smell coming out of the exaust
.Hesitation and/or bucketing when acceleration takes places
.Increase in engine running temp
.A ratteling in the muffler as car idles
.Car dying sparatically due to engine backpressure
.Difference in temperature from the back of the converter to the front due to clogging
That code means that the oxygen sensor downstream of the catalytic converter on bank 2 is detecting that the converter is not working as efficiently as it should be. It could be a bad oxygen sensor, a bad catalytic converter or and exhaust leak.
Definitely. The converter becomes plugged and the engine can't breathe [exhale].
That depends on the engine and the fuel you've used. If the engine starts burning oil a catalytic converter can fail rapidly. Some fuel additives can also cause a catalytic converter to fail prematurely.
A OEM converter should bolt in exactly like the original, an after market may have to be cut and welded in.
The catalytic converter is always in front of the muffler. Somewhere in the first third of the exaust system. Varies car to car.
There's no possible way to pass inspection with a bad catalytic converter, if if you find out you have a bad catalytic converter during your inspection you have a chance after you after you have replaced the catalytic converter and the inspection no no charge/free!!
Transmission torque converter or an exhuast catalytic converter?
No, the catalytic converter is downstream from the EGR valve so it has no effect on it.
A bad coil can damage a converter. If the engine is misfiring, it will cause raw fuel to get into the converter and that can cause failure.
A bad catalytic converter can cause hard starts if it has become clogged. This produces excessive back pressure in the engine.
Yes it is possible.
They can become clogged or they can burn out.
Yes it does.
Yes, you can do serious damage to the engine if the converter is clogged.
Loss of power, and a converter that gets red hot.
Yes. If a coil is bad causing one or more cylinders to not fire, this allows raw unburned fuel to enter the catalytic converter, where it is burned. This can ruin a converter.