Like dissolves like. Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes best, and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes best. Water is a polar molecule, and it therefore dissolves other polar molecules or ionic compounds. Organic solvents are generally not as polar as water or completely non-polar, so things like hydrocarbons, high molar mass alcohols and molecular compounds dissolve best in them.
Also, water can hydrogen bond extremely well, which results in some of its unique properties, such as it's high boiling point (especially for it molar mass) and it's high surface tension. Typically organic solvents have much lower boiling points and a lower surface tension.
It's also worth mentioning that water is completely non-toxic and environmentally benign, whereas most organic solvents are fairly toxic, especially if ingested, and many are carcinogenic.
In general, inorganic compounds will dissolve in polar or inorganic solvents such as water, whereas organic compounds will dissolve in organic solvents. However there are many exceptions to these.
ionic compounds are soluble in water because the forces between water particles are similar in strenght to those in the solids. Not soluble in organic solvents because the forces between organic solvents particles are much weaker (meeker). I hope that answered your question.
Potassium is soluble in water but not in organic solvents.
The general term is "solvent" There are organic solvents (toluene, acetone, ether, etc), and there are inorganic solvents (water).
Benzene is only soluble in other organic solvents. It is not soluble in water or other polar solvents.
Oil will not dissolve in water but will dissolve in organic solvents.
No, benzene is insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents
C6H15N Does not look to be soluble in water, but perhaps in organic solvents.
It is not lipoid, hence soluble in water .
Sodium chloride is ionic and only dissolves in polar solvents- water is excellent. In non-polar organic solvents such as hydrocarbons it is insoluble but in polar organic solvents it has limited solubility, e.g. in methanol and tetrahydrofuran.
Sodium chloride is very soluble in water but not in organic solvents.