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This is a quote from a letter Thomas has written to his friend Benjamin Rush, dated Sep 23, 1800. He was serving as Vice President to John Adams, at the time. In context he was discussing his philosophical views on Christianity. The full quote is as follows;
I promised you a letter on Christianity, which I have not
forgotten. On the contrary, it is because I have reflected on it,
that I find much more time necessary for it than I can at present
dispose of. I have a view of the subject which ought to displease
neither the rational Christian nor Deists, and would reconcile many
to a character they have too hastily rejected. I do not know that it
would reconcile the _genus irritabile vatum_ who are all in arms
against me. Their hostility is on too interesting ground to be
softened. The delusion into which the X. Y. Z. plot shewed it
possible to push the people; the successful experiment made under the
prevalence of that delusion on the clause of the constitution, which,
while it secured the freedom of the press, covered also the freedom
of religion, had given to the clergy a very favorite hope of
obtaining an establishment of a particular form of Christianity thro'
the U. S.; and as every sect believes its own form the true one,
every one perhaps hoped for his own, but especially the Episcopalians
& Congregationalists. The returning good sense of our country
threatens abortion to their hopes, & they believe that any portion of
power confided to me, will be exerted in opposition to their schemes.
And they believe rightly; for I have sworn upon the altar of god,
eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.
But this is all they have to fear from me: & enough too in their
opinion, & this is the cause of their printing lying pamphlets
against me, forging conversations for me with Mazzei, Bishop Madison,
&c., which are absolute falsehoods without a circumstance of truth to
rest on; falsehoods, too, of which I acquit Mazzei & Bishop Madison,
for they are men of truth.

In the above quote Jefferson sets forth his belief that the First Amendment separates Church and State and precludes the establishment of a state religion, which is the "tyranny over the mind of man" that Jefferson opposes. He adds that religious practitioners have nothing more to fear from him, other than his opposition to any scheme to establish their own sect as a state religion.

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Q: Thomas Jefferson wrote I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man. What does it mean?
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When did Jefferson say that he had sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man?

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