Why do you calculate loans and advances on the asset side of the balance sheet?

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Loans here means the loans given to other companies/subsidiaries. The company will receive an interest on these loans and hence is an asset.

Advances means any payments to staff as an advance.
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Why the assets and laibilities sides of balance sheet is equal?

Accounting is based on the formula of Assets = Liabilities + Owner's Equity. the DR side of a balance sheet are the Assets while the CR side records Liabilities & Owner's Eq

Why employees were not record on balance sheet asset side?

The main reason is that they would be classified as intangible assets. Intangible assets should only be included on the balance sheet when the costs are easily measurable.