What test lebbo coin?
Your question should really be - How can an original Lebbo or Navagraha Anna be identified? Remember firstly that there are no other kinds of Lebbo except the eight pairs made on the island of Piram, Gulf of Khambhat, a few hundred kilometers north of Surat in the year 1616. That is, a total of sixteen. I don't like the term "coin" as these metal pieces were never intended to be numismatic coins or currency. The English East India Company minted their first currency and coins for fiscal purposes only in 1642. The word "COIN" is being used here only as a convenient term for the Lebbo. EVERY OTHER kind of coin being traded as a Lebbo or Navagraha Coin are recent creations by racketeers, they have no unusual properties and no demand in the international market. There are no buyers for them. The racketeers call them Libo, Libbo, Lebo, Libon, Leo-coin, King Leo coin and a host of other imaginary names (along with new stories that have no historical basis) to convince someone to invest in them. Also remember that twelve Lebbo coins made in the year 1818 by the British at Fort William, employing Burmese craftsmen, was an attempt to duplicate the 1616 coins. But the attempt to induce any kind of phenomena in them failed and the coins were melted down for other uses. So in reality, no Lebbos are in existence except the 8 pairs made in Surat in the year 1616 AD. And of these there are only two still being searched for today. I am often hesitant to give proper and informative description of the original 1616 Lebbo for fear that unscrupulous people might pick up these details and attempt to manufacture fake pieces based on such facts and particulars. However, for the information of serious researchers and for those who are academically inclined, I am not withholding any of the facts that I am aware of. The original Lebbo, also referred to as the "Eclipse Lebbo", is an oval shaped metal piece, with a copper-brass-like tinge and often stained and pitted with age. It is moulded by means of a die, never machine-crafted or symmetrical. It actually consists of two plates, hand-beaten into shape on the rim, so that the joined edges of the two plates are never separately visible. Visually the coin appears to be a single mould. The weight of the sixteen pieces range from 135 gms to 165 gms, but are more likely to have been between 140 gms and 160 gms. The doubt expressed here is because all of them couldn't be weighed in recent times. Three of the Lebbos are believed to have been lost in the Bay of Bengal. As such the weights of the lost pieces could not be measured. But being of the same mould they would have to be within the range of 135 to 165 gms. As they were hand-made, the sizes were not exactly the same. But a close approximation of their measurement speaks of a length of about 8.3 cms and a width of about 4.8 cms. The thickness was approximately 4 mm. One side of the Lebbo, called the "English-face" or the "Sunny-side" depicts a house-like structure with the alphabet "E" on the top (under the sloped roof) and the alphabets "ID" on the wall. An image of the sun with 21 rays is depicted directly above the apex of the roof. This was meant to indicate the time of the day - midday. The house-like structure also symbolized in a rather humble way the first factory at Surat owned by the East India Company, the gun-foundry of which was used to make the Lebbo coins. An error in the mould caused the "EIC" to end up as "EID". This is a historically significant imperfection in the manufacture of the original eclipse coins as most fakes have "EIC" engraved on them. Along the right edge is the word ANNA and along the left edge is the word AACI. ANNA in those days symbolized "a bounty". It is the Sanskrit word for grain, but it also stood for wealth and abundance. It was sometimes also used to mean "token". Or a gift from the Gods. For the English it meant "grace or favour". AACI is believed to be a Latin abbreviation which is not in use today. At the bottom, under the house-like structure is the Christian year "1616"written numerically. The other side of the coin called the "Hindu-side" or "Cosmic side" is most significant as it is from this side that unusual phenomenon is noticed. At the top of this side of the Lebbo is a coiled serpent guarding three rivet-like keys under it. This snake is often referred to as the potential energy. The three keys or points are in a straight line. Two larger snakes representing Rahu and Khetu leap out of the sea, forming a bracket that encompasses a major star low on the horizon, two minor (or distant) stars, a half-formed moon, and a distant planet aligned to the moon. Four lines at the bottom represent the ocean. These astronomical details were intended to give future generations some clues. In fact on the English-side the midday sun was meant to indicate that the metal components of the Lebbo absorbed solar energy when left exposed at noon whereby its peculiar characteristics and unusual phenomena were much enhanced. The human temptation to exaggerate and the failure to report facts often lead to wild stories about the Lebbo. Like the stories of saints and rishis visiting various planets to collect material to make the Lebbo. When the fact is that the materials were obtained by melting the ore of a meteorite that had fallen into a paddy-field in the erstwhile Vijaynagara Kingdom which was being ruled by Sevappa Nayak in the Tanjavur area of present Tamil Nadu, and preserved in a temple for some years. Often a phenomenon is exaggerated by pranksters. The innumerable "rice-puller" and "iridium" enthusiasts have often confused the Lebbo with their pet material and claimed unquestionable knowledge of the "functions" of a Lebbo coin. As part of ones efforts to recognize the original Lebbo, one must first acknowledge the history and the number of coins available today. It is believed that three were lost at sea in the Bay of Bengal. Dr. Wernher von Braun a German scientist procured two Lebbo coins through a Kabuli Tradesman in 1938 (of which one was lost in the Allied bombings of Berlin in the Second World War). In 1942 he acquired another Lebbo. The two that he now possessed were taken to the USA after Germany's defeat in 1945. In the Cold-War years it was rumoured that Russia possessed two Lebbo coins "gifted" by a senior Congress politician from India. Apart from these pieces, one Lebbo is believed to be in the UK in private hands. Another was acquired by France through a Belgian contact. Of the six pieces that were still available in the Indian sub-continent, it is believed that two were sold to research organizations for a good sum of money in 1993 and 2003. That accounts for twelve pieces. Of the four that might still be available, two have been damaged due to mishandling by fictitious metal-buying companies and their inexperienced testers who applied chemicals on the pieces on the pretext of testing them. These two pieces have become worthless and have lost all power to exhibit any kind of phenomena. However, they are still being hawked by their present owners in the hope of selling them as an antique. I had seen one such inactive piece in Chandigarh some years ago. So in reality, only two original Lebbos of 1616 are now available in India, if at all they have survived in good condition. How do you test a Lebbo to check if it is still functional? A question that Wernher von Braun often wondered about as he tried to understand the translated documents was whether the phenomena that the Lebbo exhibited were paranormal (religious, faith-induced, unexplained), natural (applying some unknown forces of physics), astronomical (influenced by signals from outer space, and based on Hindu astrological studies of space elements and cosmology). However his research papers were never published and are not available. Over the years, many have tried to predict when any unusual or unexplained phenomena will occur in the course of examining a Lebbo that could be measured with certainty. Exhaustive and detailed astronomical and astrological charts were prepared by various individuals that added to the mystery of these coins. Some have associated unusual activitywithin the coin to the midday sun, full moon, eclipses and dominant stars on the astrological chart. Planetary position studies based on Indian astrology only gives a vague idea of the radiation cycle. Only some research organizations that have had the good fortune to test the coin 365 days a year, and periodic examination many times in a day, have actually understood the cyclic nature of the lebbo's peculiar manifestations. They have been able to compile a "planetary position roster" and predict the occurrence of unusual phenomena with some degree of accuracy. The planetary position charts also indicate that the Lebbo may lie inactive for many months at a stretch, greatly frustrating those who are looking for some unusual phenomena to occur. The radiation emiting from the Lebbo also tends to temporarily weaken after frequent exposure to power sources. Most other claims of knowledge about the Lebbo's active cycle are unreliable. What can be tested by a layman is minimal, but it is more than sufficient to establish whether a coin is authentic. To establish whether a coin is original and functional does not require complicated tests. Laboratory tests, chemicals and equipment is used by buyers normally on making full payment. Care must be taken to handle the Lebbo with rubber-gloved hands. Touch by the human body is known to sometimes "discharge" a Lebbo coin. Apart from that, any material that emits radiation could be potentially harmful to health. Any one of the tests below is sufficient to confirm if the Lebbo is authentic and active. Whenever the Lebbo is "active" it emits an unknown radiation that interferes with DC and AC power sources. 1) If the naked bulb of a dry-cell torch is flashed close to one of the three rivets/keys of the Hindu face of the Lebbo coin, the dry cell shows a degree of draining. The radiation is not expected to drain or defuse a DC source or a torch cell completely, but to an extent that confirms the fact that the coin is "active". Sometimes the flickering or dimming of the torch-light is not visible. But if the dry cells are removed and left for an hour or so they are found to be weak or dead. This indicates that the dry cell has been corrupted or damaged by the radiation. 2) If the Lebbo is immersed in a transparent tumbler or beaker of water, small silvery white bubbles are seen on both surfaces of the coin. On certain days the bubbles increase in number. The bubbles form on the surface and cling to both surfaces of the coin. None of the bubbles float up to the surface of the water. This is significant as bubbles are indication that the radiation is being emitted by the coin. 3) When the Lebbo is immersed in cold water, a minor rise in temperature may be noticed in the first 15 minutes. This may vary from 1 degree to 3 degrees Celsius. Actual rise in water temperature is only noticed when the coin has been immersed in water between one to three hours. This may cause a rise upto 15 or more degrees. To negate or neutralize the effect of room temperature, it is recommended that frigid water from a refrigerator be used. 4) If the Lebbo is active, and taken close to a TV screen while it is on, the program reception is seen to be disturbed causing static-like sounds, diffusion of image and formation of lines across the screen. This happens most often only if the Lebbo is held constantly in front of the screen for sometime, upto 45 seconds to a minute. Be cautious as you may damage the picture-tube of the TV. 5) Sometimes the Lebbo can cause major disruption to the AC power sources in the vicinity. If held close to a tube-light or any other bulb, or sometimes even close to a switch panel, it interrupts the AC current flow and may even cause the main power supply to trip. Any one of the above mentioned tests are sufficient to establish the authenticity of the Lebbo coin. No ordinary piece of metal exhibits these peculiarities or phenomena. To some degree the above also indicates that the Lebbo is active and original. If a genuine buyer is on call, he should pick it up without hesitation. Unreliable, Fraudulent and Damaging Testing Racket. There is only one reason to visit the Taj Mahal. To see the mausoleum built by Shah Jahan at Agra, of which there is only one in the world. There is ONLY ONE reason to test a Lebbo Coin. It is to establish if it is one of the 16 pieces that were made in the year 1616, of which there are only two that are unaccounted for, and which exhibits any of the above mentioned characteristics. It is the search for these two missing Lebbos that has generated so much interest among collectors and researchers. It is the search for these two coins that has also spawned so many locaters, fraululent testers, self-appointed appraisers, fictitious buyers, fly-by-night companies and racketeers. Tests conducted with pencil points, rice-grains, cloves, tamarind, currency notes and milk are irrational and unscientific. These are creations of racketeers who earn a livelihood out of collecting "testing fees". No unusual phenomena can be noticed by using these ingredients as we are only dealing with radiation, and the need for establishing whether the piece you are testing belongs to the eight pairs of the 1616 Lebbo coins. I have watched and listened to very factual information about the Lebbo coins being twisted by unscrupulous individuals to suit their own ends. There are those who believe that the coin will become buoyant and partially float, or lift one end when immersed in water. The Lebbo is a very dense metallic coin, not a submarine. Please don't be misled by these so-called testers. There are many such testers who also ascribe to a ridiculous "cloud-test". By exposing to the open sky they expect to see some strange cloud formation. It is true that some researchers believe that the Lebbo coin has some satellite application by which one can seed clouds or cause weather changes by scientific application of its radiation properties. Not by merely exposing it to the sky. This is another case of twisting facts by these so-called testers. Fake testers look for vapour formation in an empty overturned glass when the Lebbo is covered with it. Another common racket is to demand a fee to buy chemicals to test the Lebbo coin. The owner or possessor of the coin is asked to bring the Lebbo to a "distant" or "remote" location for "safe testing". Will anyone in their right senses carry a valuable material to any remote location that someone else decides? There are normally many reasons for sweetly and convincingly talking the seller into doing this. One is to try and intimidate the owner to surrender the coin when he reaches the remote destination. Remember the racketeers already know if the coin is authentic or not. From that remote location, it is easy to walk away (as they have already collected the chemical fee he paid for) as no policeman can reach the location easily to arrest him in case the seller complains about being cheated. In some cases some local police "friends" of your so-called tester are already tipped off and waiting to raid the venue and confiscate the material with the threat of a case of the seller being involved in some nefarious deal. In which case they don't need to pay him, return his fee or even his material. He can consider himself lucky if he gets away without losing his wallet, valuables and car. Never allow a buyer to dictate terms to you if you possess authentic material. Your anxiety to transact on hearing the vast sums of money offered leads you straight to the trap. Always be alert to sniff-out a bait. Chemical-treatment, not chemical-test, is done by the end-user. It is done when the end-user requires applying the Lebbo to some research purpose, and this should in no way be the concern of the seller. There is no way to know what chemicals might be used. Do not allow this nonsense, as you will invariably end up being the loser. I have personally seen a genuine coin damaged by this indulgence. Talk of the Government being legally involved in the transaction is also only a well-rehearsed sales-talk to entice you to cooperate and make you comfortable. Why should the government go into all that trouble? If they want it, or if you do not possess papers to prove the material belongs to you, or if the material is above a certain age to qualify it as an antique, the Government will simply seize it. If it is tested and found to have fissile properties, radio-activity or any form of destructive or national threat, you have a lot to answer for. Finally, be it known that there are very few genuine buyers or sellers in this line of work, and nobody can boast of previous experience or expertise whatsoever. It assails my common-sense to accept that "experience and expertise" can be bandied about when there are only two Lebbos in existence somewhere in the country!
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Did the coin introduced in 1616 by east India company it was 82 grams of lebbo coin details in 1616?
Your question is not very clear. You are assuming that the East India Company "introduced" Lebbocoins in 1616, a story being propagated by half-informedrumour-mongers. There …is no numismatic record of the East IndiaCompany having issued such coins for the purpose of trade. Therewere no such "coins" introduced either in the form of currency oras legal tender. The lebbo coin exists, but the story is quitedifferent from what is often rumoured. First of all it must be understood that the Lebbo was not a coin.It was not intended for trade. It was created from an alloy ofmetals found in a meteorite, and the British were involved in itsmanufacture only because they had a small gun-factory at Surat thatthese Indian metallurgists were allowed to use by order of the Kingof Surat. The British involvement can be noted by the Englishalphabets occurring on one face of the so-called "coin". In 1616,The East India Company consisted of a hand-full of sailors. Theywere not in power. They had not even conceived of the idea ofruling India. They were a small group of businessmen begging theKing of Surat for some land to establish their godowns. They hadnot even traveled to or seen the rest of India. Most of India wasruled by the Mughals (Jahangir). Where was the question of the EastIndia Company issuing coins in India? NUMISMATIC COINS - First let us understand how coins as a means oftrade evolved. It is very difficult to know today where the conceptof coinage first evolved, but based on available evidences, itappears that the concept of money (as coins, which by definitionhere would be a piece of metal of defined weight stamped withsymbol of authority for financial transaction), was conceived bythree different civilizations independently and almostsimultaneously. Coins were introduced as a means to trade things ofdaily usage in Asia minor, India and China in 6th century BC. Mosthistorians agree that the first coins of world were issued byGreeks living in Lydia and Ionia (located on the western coast ofmodern Turkey). These first coins were globules of Electrum, anaturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. These were crudecoins of definite weight stamped with incuse punches issued by thelocal authorities in 650 BC. Most likely the first coins of India were minted just before 5thcentury BC in northern and central India. Although, few historianhave suggested (based on vedic records) that India minted perhapsthe first coins of the world which were introduced even earlierthan Lydian/Ionian coins, in 8th century BC; most western scholarsdo not agree with this theory. Both, literary and archaeologicalevidence confirm that the Indians invented coinage somewherebetween 5th to 6th century BC. THE LEBBO - Coming back to your question of the Lebbo "coin", itmust be understood that India had innumerable medals, medallions,talismans, temple-tokens, royal tokens, engraved metals,punch-marked coins, value-redeemable metal seals, leather coins,lockets etc., that do not necessarily conform to standardnumismatics but which were being produced in every kingdom andregion for 2000 years before the British landed in India. Many arestill being discovered. Because they were manufactured, minted orcast in small quantities, because they served some purpose (as areward, as a religious ceremony, as a gift during weddings, etc.)other than trade, their history is often very difficult to trace.But this does not mean that they didn't exist. However, as withalchemy and ayurveda, experiments were conducted by scholarsutilizing various metals, herbs and naturally occurring elementsfor the purpose of studying medicine, chemistry etc. Much of what is often rumored about the lebbo coin is heresy,though some are very true. So what is true? (1) Yes, they were made in a gun-foundry in Surat(2) The purpose for their manufacture is not known. The Britishassumed it was for some local religious purpose, but the Englishmenwere allowed to put their insignia on one side of the coin. A faultin the mould caused "EIC" to become "EID" (3) Its manufacture wasdone based on some ancient Sanskrit texts. (4) Detailedastronomical study was done before its manufacture. (5) eight"pairs" of coins were made (6) They were made during a solareclipse as per the instructions in the text. For some unknown reason the sixteen pieces were believed to havebeen transported to the Andaman Islands some years later, andbelieved to have been lost in the jetty in what later came to beknown as Port Blair. Many believe that people involved in themanufacture in 1616 were struck by unknown disease. At the timewhen they were made, they were not called "lebbo". This was a namegiven after 1945 by some researchers. It is an abbreviation for"Light Emitting Bionic Bi-polar Orb" a code name for a specificapplication they had developed in Germany during the Nazi regime. Some of these coins show peculiar characteristics, which is notsurprising considering they were made of rare and unknown alloymixed with copper. They have antique, curio and intrinsic value ifa genuine one can be found. It is rumored that they emit radiationand may be radio-active. Which makes it illegal to possess them.Some attribute unimaginable value to it which is not realistic. I have examined many fakes in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh andKarnataka. On one occasion I examined a genuine Lebbo coin whichshowed some form of radiation, causing dry cells to corrupt,interfering with electrical and electronic equipment and causingmild changes in water temperature when it is immersed in it. Out ofcuriosity I checked the metal piece many times. The results werehowever never consistent and sometimes very anomalous. It was ovaland weighed about 154 gms. I refused to either get involved in itstrading or in any transaction related to it. The Lebbo is a current rage among collectors. It is also a vehiclefor racketeers who form so-called "Companies" and collect "testingfees" from gullible investors, posing as buyers. Some Govt.agencies - from namely the UK, USA and West Germany (beforeunification) showed interest in some scientific applicationsutilizing these coins in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Nothingmuch is known about these enquiries since. Today there is a mix ofmystery, truth, rumors and some ridiculous claims surrounding theLebbo coins. CONCLUSION - Personally I know they exist. I have tested one thatappeared to be genuine. There was no trickery involved as I testedit on my own with full freedom to form my own opinion. It wasexactly as described in some magazine articles I had read manyyears ago. It had "1616" on it and it also showed a fault in themould (EID), two snakes, three points, the sun, moon, stars etc. Itwas hand-made. And it weighed about 154 gms.
Sterling Silver is very easy to test. Silver plated brass, nickel silver or low quality silver alloys will turn green when a drop of Nitric acid is applied. Sterling will turn… a creamy color. Testing kits made specifically to test sterling silver are available from many jewelry supply companies.
1) Lebbo is slang for Lebanese.. 2) Lebbo is an acronym or abbreviation of the scientific term " Light Emitting Bionic Bi-Polar Orb" named for a phenomena following an experi…ment carried out by Wernher von Braun between 1942 and 1944 in Germany using an oval coin-like copper material that was believed to be an undying and perennial power-source for V2 rockets. This coin, smuggled out from British India, was believed to have been lost in the Allied Berlin bombings of 1945. The first information of the existence of these coins came out in the late 1970s from South America where former Nazi officers were in hiding. While the rest of the world ignored it, the news of the Lebbo coins gained momentum in India and neighbouring countries. It is believed that eight pairs of such coins were created for some purpose in the year 1616. The search for the fabled coins began first in Pakistan and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), but the focus of many hunters and researchers are now South India. Almost immediately following the news of these coins spread in India, several fakes were being manufactured and traded in many cities by unscrupulous elements.
Who were the reciepients of the copper iridium lebbo coins issued by the British East India Company in 1616?
You are assuming that the East India Company "introduced" Lebbo coins in 1616, a story being propagated by half-informed rumour-mongers. There is no numismatic record of the E…ast India Company having issued such coins for the purpose of trade. There were no such "coins" introduced either in the form of currency or as legal tender. The lebbo coin exists, but the story is quite different from what is often rumoured.. First of all it must be understood that the Lebbo was not a coin. It was not intended for trade. It was created from an alloy of metals found in a meteorite, and the British were involved in its manufacture only because they had a small gun-factory at Surat that these Indian metallurgists were allowed to use by order of the King of Surat. The British involvement can be noted by the English alphabets occurring on one face of the so-called "coin". In 1616, The East India Company consisted of a hand-full of sailors. They were not in power. They had not even conceived of the idea of ruling India. They were a small group of businessmen begging the King of Surat for some land to establish their godowns. They had not even traveled to or seen the rest of India. Most of India was ruled by the Mughals (Jahangir). Where was the question of the East India Company issuing coins in India?. NUMISMATIC COINS - First let us understand how coins as a means of trade evolved. It is very difficult to know today where the concept of coinage first evolved, but based on available evidences, it appears that the concept of money (as coins, which by definition here would be a piece of metal of defined weight stamped with symbol of authority for financial transaction), was conceived by three different civilizations independently and almost simultaneously. Coins were introduced as a means to trade things of daily usage in Asia minor, India and China in 6th century BC. Most historians agree that the first coins of world were issued by Greeks living in Lydia and Ionia (located on the western coast of modern Turkey). These first coins were globules of Electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. These were crude coins of definite weight stamped with incuse punches issued by the local authorities in 650 BC.. Most likely the first coins of India were minted just before 5th century BC in northern and central India. Although, few historian have suggested (based on vedic records) that India minted perhaps the first coins of the world which were introduced even earlier than Lydian/Ionian coins, in 8th century BC; most western scholars do not agree with this theory. Both, literary and archaeological evidence confirm that the Indians invented coinage somewhere between 5th to 6th century BC.. THE LEBBO - Coming back to your question of the Lebbo "coin", it must be understood that India had innumerable medals, medallions, talismans, temple-tokens, royal tokens, engraved metals, punch-marked coins, value-redeemable metal seals, leather coins, lockets etc., that do not necessarily conform to standard numismatics but which were being produced in every kingdom and region for 2000 years before the British landed in India. Many are still being discovered. Because they were manufactured, minted or cast in small quantities, because they served some purpose (as a reward, as a religious ceremony, as a gift during weddings, etc.) other than trade, their history is often very difficult to trace. But this does not mean that they didn't exist. However, as with alchemy and ayurveda, experiments were conducted by scholars utilizing various metals, herbs and naturally occurring elements for the purpose of studying medicine, chemistry etc.. Much of what is often rumored about the lebbo coin is heresy, though some are very true.. So what is true? (1) Yes, they were made in a gun-foundry in Surat (2) The purpose for their manufacture is not known. The British assumed it was for some local religious purpose, but the Englishmen were allowed to put their insignia on one side of the coin. A fault in the mould caused "EIC" to become "EID" (3) Its manufacture was done based on some ancient Sanskrit texts. (4) Detailed astronomical study was done before its manufacture. (5) eight "pairs" of coins were made (6) They were made during a solar eclipse as per the instructions in the text.. For some unknown reason the sixteen pieces were believed to have been transported to the Andaman Islands some years later, and believed to have been lost in the jetty in what later came to be known as Port Blair. Many believe that people involved in the manufacture in 1616 were struck by unknown disease. At the time when they were made, they were not called "lebbo". This was a name given after 1945 by some researchers. It is an abbreviation for "Light Emitting Bionic Bi-polar Orb" a code name for a specific application they had developed in Germany during the Nazi regime.. Some of these coins show peculiar characteristics, which is not surprising considering they were made of rare and unknown alloy mixed with copper. They have antique, curio and intrinsic value if a genuine one can be found. It is rumored that they emit radiation and may be radio-active. Which makes it illegal to possess them. Some attribute unimaginable value to it which is not realistic.. I have examined many fakes in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. On one occasion I examined a genuine Lebbo coin which showed some form of radiation, causing dry cells to corrupt, interfering with electrical and electronic equipment and causing mild changes in water temperature when it is immersed in it. Out of curiosity I checked the metal piece many times. The results were however never consistent and sometimes very anomalous. It was oval and weighed about 154 gms. I refused to either get involved in its trading or in any transaction related to it.. The Lebbo is a current rage among collectors. It is also a vehicle for racketeers who form so-called "Companies" and collect "testing fees" from gullible investors, posing as buyers. Some Govt. agencies - from namely the UK, USA and West Germany (before unification) showed interest in some scientific applications utilizing these coins in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Nothing much is known about these enquiries since. Today there is a mix of mystery, truth, rumors and some ridiculous claims surrounding the Lebbo coins.. CONCLUSION - Personally I know they exist. I have tested one that appeared to be genuine. There was no trickery involved as I tested it on my own with full freedom to form my own opinion. It was exactly as described in some magazine articles I had read many years ago. It had "1616" on it and it also showed a fault in the mould (EID), two snakes, three points, the sun, moon, stars etc. It was hand-made. And it weighed about 154 gms.
You rub the edge on a rough brick wall, if it is grey or silverish under neath, it is not real gold , if it still looks gold underneath, that it OS most probably real
FRAUD COMPANIES AND TESTERS OF CALCUTTA (and other places) . There are some government funded research organizations in Western countries who buy just about any item with… rare qualities, not necessarily just the Lebbo Coins, for the purpose of research and application in various industries. Many organizations with vast funds for research and development buy materials from all corners of the globe for application in medicine, satellite technology, space-science, robotics, bio-technology, etc. It all depends on what you have to sell, what they want, how you convince them, what need they see in their research for your item of sale etc.. But as far as testers go, there is a big racket in India that deserves a warning to all readers of this page. There is a general belief that testers of rare materials normally possess some esoteric knowledge that cannot be questioned by common man. Many racketeers, mainly from Calcutta, have been making a fortune in this trade.. These so-called 'Testers' from Calcutta (and other places) do not speak a single sentence in English. One wonders in which language they learnt science? They are barely matriculates, and have no knowledge of the basic perimeters of scientific testing. They have never studied physics or chemistry, and have never heard of archaeology, metallurgy, astronomy or cosmology. Who taught them to test? What qualifies them as testers? What are the credentials of the company that made such illiterate persons testers?. Tell me, which company or foreign government is going to pay hundreds of crores based on these testers' knowledge or ability? How can you hand over a valuable material for testing to an illiterate racketeer? Would you allow your sick child to be examined by someone who simply claims to be a doctor?. If you check the credentials of the testers and appraisers you will find that none of them represent any genuine or registered company. The company they claim to represent will not be registered with the Ministry of Company Affairs, Ministry of Commerce or the Chamber of Commerce anywhere in India or the world. They don't have a web-site or visiting-card. Ask them why, and they will tell you that "it is a secret". Ask them to show you their company license and you will find they are ready to vanish. The joke is when you ask them to describe what they are testing, what results they expect and why such result is expected? The answer they will always give is "it is a secret.". Some of them also print visiting cards of existing companies. One fraud gang had locally registered a company calling themselves "East India Company". Many print visiting cards of existing auction companies like Heritage Auctions, USA, Sotheby's and Christies, London,etc.. So, what is this entire racket about?. Normally what happens is as follows. Someone discovers or is in possession of an item which shows some unusual phenomena. It may be some rare material that shows some unusual characteristic or functions. There are some organizations around the world, especially in Western countries who often buy these materials for various research purposes. They may even pay a fancy and exorbitant price for it purely based on its rarity, historical / antique value, research importance or even resale / auction value.. As the news of this rare item spreads, someone possessing a considerable amount of money, a financier, comes forward to "invest". This person is willing to risk a large sum of money to acquire such an item, purely in the hope of re-selling it to a genuine overseas buyer for a huge profit.. This is the stage at which various racketeers and mediators enter the fray.. The mediators are desperately on the hunt for a genuine buyer so that the transaction goes through. Naturally, anyone claiming to represent some UK, US or German company is given a chance to examine the unusual item. For this a "testing fee" of a few lakhs is made mandatory. In desperation the fee is paid to the tester, who arrives from Calcutta (or some other place). He arrives with a lot of self-importance, company rules and warnings of secrecy.. For this tester everything is assured. The testing fee has already been pocketed by him. All he needs to do is go through the motions of doing a test. He normally indulges in a lot of unscientific nonsense, wastes a few hours with the item and the "testing-equipment" and departs after making one of the following proclamations -. "the test has failed". "the item has failed". "the item is a fake". "the fresh-milk test has failed" or "the somersaulting monkey test has failed" (some new tests of his own invention). "this is not exactly what my company is looking for.". "item may be genuine, so keep it till I go back and bring some chemicals"(be ready now to pay for the chemicals). And so on. The racket never fails for them. The owner/seller or the financier will definitely lose money. But not these testers. Beware!. There are an equally large number of scamsters trying to sell fake products claiming unusual properties and phenomena. This is the reason why genuine buyers do not wish to invest their time and money in chasing various claims in India.. Ofcourse for the fake tester the more fake products the better, as it is easier to collect testing fees and proclaim the item to be a fake. For him business booms as long as there are fake claims.. How To Test A Tester? . As in any other conventional business, the competency of a person involved in a transaction can and must be tested. Do not be afraid to ask any of the following questions. Or any question you deem fit to satisfy yourself.. For example, ask the tester-. Have you informed your company of your visit to our office today? In other words, is this an official visit on your part?. Name the purchasing company you represent, their web-site etc.. Show us your visiting card, or a card of the company.. Show us your ID card issued by the company you represent.. Show us the Letter of Authority issued by the company indicating your competency to test any such material.. Proof of any such transactions you (or your company) have done in the past.. Can you provide us your office / residential address, land-line phone numbers, mobile number?. Please state your educational qualification in the field of science, history or archaeology (and/or other subjects) qualifying you to test such materials.. Please state the purpose for which your company wishes to acquire such materials.. Can you show us fund proof of your company's intention and ability to purchase?. Why is money required to be paid by us for something your company wants to buy?. Other questions you can ask depends on the conversation the tester makes with you. They often talk of iridium, radio-activity, magnetism, chemical tests, activity tests etc. Take the lead from his own conversation to ask him some pointed questions.. What is iridium? What is the atomic number of Iridium?. What is the color of iridium?. What is the so-called 'power' in such materials - is it magnetism, electro-magnetism, radio-activity, micro-wave radio frequency, etc..?. Why do unusual phenomena occur? For example, why does a torch discharge? Why does water temperature increase? Why does power-supply flicker or trip?. What is the chemical composition of the chemical/powder that will be used for the tests?. If you cannot or do not wish to comply to, or answer any of the above, can you deposit Rs So-much to establish your authenticity as a tester, buyer or buyer's representative? If he is there only to fool you, he will now get up and leave.. Moral of the story. There are 3% buyers and 97% scamsters. Be sure you filter them carefully if you have a genuinely rare material to sell. Wait as long as it takes to locate a genuine buyer overseas. Make sure you have fund-proof or credentials of the buyer.. If you are unsure about the quality, demand, price or rarity of your own material, confirm that first.. Sometimes it is worth saving all the heartburn and headache and selling it off locally to a buyer who you are sure has the money you need rather than waiting for years to sell it to an elusive overseas buyer who may not pay the jacked-up price the mediators in India are dreaming of.
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you know that gold is burn at 1036 0C. You know that Gold will react with NH3CO2 and HCL MIXTURE but not coincident by any acid . You know that gold is conductor. you know th…at gold is gold.
All coins have a specific weight which you can find in coin referencing material per country along with a specific diameter. For example an U.S. 1922 Saint Gaudens Double Eagl…e ($20 gold piece) weighs 33.436 grams which contains 90% gold. If a coin is not this exact weight and diameter from this specific year then it is not the gold coin in question. If you are not concerned about defacing the coin there are gold testing kits available online or at your local chemical stores. Most use Nutric Acid and Muriatic Acid, which are applied to filed particles from the specified coin. These acids cause non gold particles to separate from gold. There are also electronic gold testers available at rather investment grade pricing.
You can because silver is not magnetic, however Most common day coins are not pure silver or any other metal.
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i have orginal 1616 kingly coin ,so now i want good byer r company
Carmen Lebbos has: Played Elmo (1990-) in "Iftah ya simsim" in 1982. Played May Salemeh in "Ibnat Al Mouallem" in 2005. Played Ismahan in "Whatever Lola Wants" in 2007. Perfor…med in "Falling from Earth" in 2007. Performed in "Escaping from the West" in 2009. Performed in "Here Comes the Rain" in 2010. Played Artist in "Beirut My Heart (Beirut Qalbi)" in 2011. Played Em Abbass in "33 Days" in 2012. Played Kinda Habib in "Kinda" in 2012. Performed in "Waynon" in 2013.