By what means do digital cameras reproduce images?
Answer . The question begs another one or two before an answer can be given :-\nHow is the digital image being viewed? - several possibilities exist :-\n1)On the camera LC…D display\n2)On a computer monitor\n3)On a TV set\n4)As a print and if so printed by inkjet or laser printer\n5)Some other mechanism - eg a standalone viewer into which the camera memory card is inserted\n. \nIs the whole of the image being displayed or a "cropped" version ie only a part of the whole frame?\n. \nIs the effect apparent in all tones of the picture or, say, only in the shadow/highlight areas?
Before an actual image is recorded, a number of measurements are taken by the camera as you press on the shutter release. It figures out the focus to ensure a sharp image, and… it measures the available light to determine the aperture (a hole within the lens, which size can be adjusted) and shutter speed needed to record the image. When you press the shutter release all the way, here's where the magic begins. The aperture would jump to whatever setting the camera (or you) decided to use, and the shutter opens to allow light to reach the sensor. The time the shutter remains open (ie. shutter speed) and the size of the aperture will both determine how much light reaches the sensor. For example, your camera would need a larger aperture and longer time to record an image in a dim room (the latter is the reason why photos taken in the dark without flash tends to be blurry. Your hands would be shaking the whole time and the camera records all that motion) compared to broad daylight. The sensor itself is either a CCD (Couple-Charged Device) or CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) microchip. What this means is unimportant. These sensors are made of an array of tiny squares, usually blue, green and red arranged into a mosaic pattern, called pixels. Of course, there are exceptions (like Fuji, which have hexagonal pixels in some of their camera sensors, and Sigma, which stacks all three colours instead of arranging them side-by-side). You can think light as very tiny packets of energy. A stream of packets of energy. These packets are called photons. When they hit a pixel, it creates a small electrical current is generated. The more light, the more current. These electrical signals are amplified (to make the signal stronger) and are converted into digital signals by the ADC (Analog/Digital Converter). Once that's done, a microprocessor processes your image. It sharpens the image, increases the contrast, maybe make it black and white if you like, and perhaps add a date stamp. The processes here are many and varied, but it ends with packaging the file into a smaller size (usually a JPEG file) and sends it to the memory card. You can now switch to playback mode, show it to your friends, and laugh at how silly you look during that last Halloween party. Some cameras (typically more expensive ones) also have a separate, small, temporary, but very fast memory called buffer memory. It stores the image while its slowly being recorded into the memory card, so you can shoot another picture right away instead of waiting for it to finish recording. Sports photographers are especially dependant on this feature to record the heat of the action, often at anywhere between 5 to 10 pictures EACH SECOND!
the light passes through the lens, arpeture,ige sensor(that will process the image,it will be stored in the memory card of the camera by the connections in it.
Digital cameras are very much like all earlier cameras. Beginning with the very first camera all have been basically black boxes with a lens to gather the light, a wheel you t…urned to focus the image, an aperture that determines how bright the light is, and a shutter that determines how long the light enters. Digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor. In some digital cameras the image sensor is a charge-coupled device (CCD), while in others it's a CMOS sensor. On the surface of these fingernail-sized silicon chips are millions of photosensitive diodes, each of which captures a single pixel in the photograph to be. When you take a picture the shutter opens briefly and each pixel on the image sensor records the brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating an electrical charge. The more light that hits a pixel, the higher the charge it records. Pixels capturing light from highlights in the scene will have high charges. Those capturing light from shadows will have low charges. After the shutter closes to end the exposure, the charge from each pixel is measured and converted into a digital number. This series of numbers is then used to reconstruct the image by setting the color and brightness of matching pixels on the screen.
If there are horizontal grainy lines on an image taken by a digital camera does it mean the camera has been destroyed?
If the lines are on the print, your printer heads need cleaning.
Pixel density. The greater the density, the higher the quality of the image.
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Bytes, the higher the mega pixels, the more detail, the more bytes.
a memory chip
Simple question - tough answer. There is currently no single "industry standard" for measuring image quality. Some aspects to consider: . Color Reproduction (lens & sensor…) . ISO Performance (sensor) . Sensor Size & Resolution (sensor) . Dynamic Range (sensor) . Image Sharpness (lens) . CA Performance / Correction (lens) . Light Falloff / Vignetting (lens) . ...and others Digital cameras are bending and capturing light and storing that as a bunch of "1"s (ones) and "0"s (zeros). The number and complexity of the variables is staggering when you get into the details.
Better quality than a disposable camera. You can take as many as the memory can hold then delete the ones you dont want.
The CCD (charge coupled device.)
In terms of quality, the difference has been decreasing rapidly. I would say one advantage is there is no negative. Some years from now your images should not have any color… fading, dust, scratches or other marks. One major disadvantage is there is no negative. So write protect your original files and make multiple backups using DVD's or different drives, and if possible, different locations to store them. Nothing is worse than suddenly getting the dreaded " disk does not appear to be formatted " error regarding the drive that until yesterday contained your entire collection of images from once-in-a-lifetime events which you spent a great many hours editing.
It has a minicomputer inside that records light onto a two-dimensional array of points. Each of these points is then assigned a digital value. In general all digital devices w…ork on the same principle.